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This hypothesis and review introduces rules of stem cell stress responses that provide biomarkers and alternative testing that replaces or reduces gestational tests using whole animals. These rules for the stress responses of cultured stem cells validate the organismal strategy of the stress...
Registration, Evaluation, Authorization, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is a new chemicals regulation law in the European Union (EU). The law is supplemented by tens of thousands of pages of guidance documents, and the implementation of REACH is still a work in progress. Requirements for...
The nonhuman primates (NHPs) are used in many areas of biomedical research where their similarities to humans make them exclusively valuable animal models. The use of NHPs in pre-clinical testing is expected to increase due to the increase in the development of biological compounds for...
In light of various pressures, toxicologists have been searching for alternative methods for safety testing of chemicals. According to a recent policy in the European Union (Regulation, Evaluation Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, REACH), it has been estimated that over the next twelve...
A predictive model of reproductive toxicity, as observed in rat multigeneration reproductive (MGR) studies, was previously developed using high throughput screening (HTS) data from 36 in vitro assays mapped to 8 genes or gene-sets from Phase I of USEPA ToxCast research program, the...
Establishing specific biomarkers for the assessment of human male fertility status is an important goal to ensure the fitness of the male contribution so as to support the birth of a healthy child. Spermatozoa are considered an optimal surrogate tissue for the evaluation of spermatogenic...
The occupational chemical 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) has been shown to cause selective destruction of ovarian small pre-antral (primordial and primary) follicles in rats and mice by accelerating the natural, apoptotic process of atresia. Chemicals that destroy primordial follicles are of...
Histopathologic interpretation of juvenile toxicity studies is necessarily complicated by the dynamic developmental processes underway within the test subjects. In addition to potentially marked differences in compound metabolism, juvenile animals have vulnerable temporally defined proliferating...
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