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Recovery of evolutionary history and delimiting species boundaries in widely distributed, poorly known groups requires extensive geographic sampling, but sampling regimes are difficult to design a priori because evolutionary diversity is often “hidden” by inadequate taxonomy. Large data sets...
We conducted a simulation study of the phylogenetic methods UPGMA, neighbor joining, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood for a five-taxon tree under a molecular clock. The parameter space included a small region where maximum parsimony is inconsistent, so we tested inconsistency correction...
Many questions in evolutionary biology are best addressed by comparing traits in different species. Often such studies involve mapping characters on phylogenetic trees. Mapping characters on trees allows the nature, number, and timing of the transformations to be identified. The parsimony method...
Character construction, the methods by which characters and character states are produced from observations of variation, is a crucial but poorly understood step in phylogenetic analysis. Alternative approaches are used in practice, but there has been relatively little investigation of their...
Marmots have a prominent role in the study of mammalian social evolution, but only recently has their systematics received the attention it deserves if sociobiological studies are to be placed in a phylogenetic context. Sciurid morphology can be used as model to test the congruence between...
The ruminants constitute the largest group of ungulates, with >190 species, and its distribution is widespread throughout all continents except Australia and Antarctica. Six families are traditionally recognized within the suborder Ruminantia: Antilocapridae (pronghorns), Bovidae (cattle, sheep,...
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