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In simultaneous analyses of multiple data partitions, the trees relevant when measuring support for a clade are the optimal tree, and the best tree lacking the clade (i.e., the most reasonable alternative). The parsimony-based method of partitioned branch support (PBS) “forces” each data set...
We developed a recurrence relation that counts the number of tandem duplication trees (either rooted or unrooted) that are consistent with a set of n tandemly repeated sequences generated under the standard unequal recombination (or crossover) model of tandem duplications. The number of rooted...
Allodapine bees have long been regarded as providing useful material for examining the origins of social behavior. Previous researchers have assumed that sociality arose within the Allodapini and have linked the evolution of sociality to a transition from mass provisioning to progressive...
We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the species, species groups, and subgenera within the predominantly eusocial lineage of Lasioglossum (the Hemihalictus series) based on three protein coding genes: mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I, nuclear elongation factor 1α and long-wavelength...
We propose a Bayesian method for testing molecular clock hypotheses for use with aligned sequence data from multiple taxa. Our method utilizes a nonreversible nucleotide substitution model to avoid the necessity of specifying either a known tree relating the taxa or an outgroup for rooting the...
Spiders of the recently described linyphiid genus Orsonwelles (Araneae, Linyphiidae) are one of the most conspicuous groups of terrestrial arthropods of Hawaiian native forests. There are 13 known Orsonwelles species, and all are single- island endemics. This radiation provides an excellent...
Any change in shape of a configuration of landmark points in two or three dimensions includes a uniform component, a component that is a wholly linear (affine) transformation. The formulas for estimating this component have been standardized for two-dimensional data but not for three-dimensional...
Systematists expect their hypotheses to be asymptotically precise. As the number of phylogenetically informative characters for a set of taxa increases, the relationships implied should stabilize on some topology. If true, this increasing stability should clearly manifest itself if an index of...
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