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Background: It is important to clarify the clinicopathologic characteristics of micrometastasis in lymph nodes and microinvasion in primary lesions for the treatment options with regard to submucosal gastric cancer. Methods: We examined 1945 lymph nodes and 68 primary tumors resected from 79...
Background: An ideal reinforcing neo-sphincter should be innervated by the pudendal nerve to work in coordination with the external anal sphincter. The aim of this study was to create a skeletal muscle innervated by the pudendal nerve without inducing external anal sphincter morbidity. Methods:...
Background: Cigarette smoking is implicated in atherosclerotic plaque formation, but the role of nicotine in this process is not completely understood. The release of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) by the bovine aortic smooth muscle cell (SMC) after nicotine administration at a...
Background: Given the pressures that exist today to modify surgical training programs, this study was undertaken to ascertain the opinions of surgical intern applicants and fellowship program directors with regard to the length of surgical training. Methods: Surveys were sent to fourth-year...
Background: This study compares the effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum versus laparotomy on cellular-mediated immune response in a murine model. Methods: Sixty-eight female C3H/He mice were sensitized to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and to a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line (MC2)...
Background: We examined the prevalence, patterns, and clinical significance of nodal micrometastases in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods: Cervical, mediastinal, and abdominal lymph nodes systematically removed from 37 patients without conventional histologic evidence of lymph node...
Background: Sentinel node (SN) biopsy can be used to select patients with primary melanoma for therapeutic lymphadenectomy. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of 3 methods to locate the SN: preoperative dynamic lymphoscintigraphy, intraoperative patent blue dye (PBD), and...
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