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Counterfactual thoughts predominantly occur in response to failed goal pursuit. The primary function of self-related counterfactuals seems to be correction of specific behaviors and preparation for future successful goal attainment. In the present article we describe a model that outlines this...
Two basic principles governing the motivational regulation of automatic affective processing are described and relevant evidence is reviewed. According to the counter-regulation principle, attention is automatically allocated to information that is opposite in valence to current motivational...
In this paper I argue that, to make intentional actions fully intelligible, we need to posit representations of action the content of which is nonconceptual. I further argue that an analysis of the properties of these nonconceptual representations, and of their relationships to action...
Can children improve shielding an ongoing task from distractions by if-then planning (i.e., by forming implementation intentions)? In an experimental study, the situational and personal limits of action control by distraction-inhibiting implementation intentions (“If a distraction comes up,...
We investigated whether words relevant to a person’s current goal and words related to that goal influence the orienting of attention even when an intention to attend to the goal-relevant and goal-related stimuli is not present. Participants performed a modified spatial cueing paradigm combined...
After outlining why the notion of conscious control of action matters to us and after distinguishing different challenges to that notion, the contribution focuses on the challenge posed by the literature on unconscious goal pursuit. Based on a conceptual clarification of the notion of...
This paper discusses psychological approaches to intentions and to the limits of intentions and the biological foundations of intentions. Following a minimum common argument about what intentions are, psychological aspects of intentions are reviewed. We begin with a discussion of the...
Goal-striving and achievement can be undermined when individuals have a competing desire to protect a cherished self-view. When individuals are more concerned with avoiding the negative implications of a likely failure than with self-improvement, they may ignore negative information or may even...
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