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The circadian release of the hormone melatonin is regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which feeds back into the nucleus to modulate sleep and circadian phase through activation of the MT 1 and/or MT 2 melatonin receptors. Considering the functions of the SCN as a sleep and circadian...
Cognitive models of insomnia have received growing support in recent years and are embraced by the current diagnostic framework. Many people with insomnia report that mental events, such as intrusive thoughts or a racing mind, prevent them from achieving or maintaining sleep. Dysfunctional...
Approximately half of patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) also experience insomnia. The relationship between these two common sleep disorders is complex and unclear but patients with both SDB and insomnia have poorer sleep quality and are more likely to have psychiatric disorders than...
Comorbid insomnia and other sleep disturbances are common in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. Insomnia in patients with neurological conditions may occur as a direct consequence of the disease itself or may be secondary to factors associated...
Despite the wide prevalence and important consequences of insomnia, remarkably little is known about its pathophysiology. Available models exist primarily in the psychological domain and derive from the demonstrated efficacy of behavioral treatment approaches to insomnia management. However,...
Defining the relationship between sleep disturbances and psychiatric disorders is a thought–provoking task and is becoming even more challenging because it is apparent that insomnia is not simply a typical symptom of a psychiatric disorder but may actually be a predictor (or independent risk...
The evolution of animals is a consequence of selective specialization of cells, tissues, functional systems, and behavior. The objective of all life is successful reproduction and maintenance of the species. In order to accomplish this, all animals have evolved a division of behavior into two...
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