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Screening is used to detect disease earlier in its course, allow earlier treatment, and presumably decrease morbidities and potential mortality associated with the later expression of more advanced disease and presumably more complex treatments consequently required. Judicious screening in...
First degree relatives of patients with bladder cancer have a two-fold increased risk of bladder cancer but high-risk bladder cancer families are extremely rare. There is no clear Mendelian inheritance pattern that can explain the increased familial risk. This makes classical linkage studies for...
To date, many epidemiological studies have been conducted to examine the association between occupation and bladder cancer incidence. However, results from these studies often have been inconsistent, and significant associations have rarely been found, possibly owing to the lack of adequate...
Epidemiological studies on coffee, alcohol and bladder cancer risk published up to 2007 were reviewed. Coffee drinkers have a moderately higher relative risk of bladder cancer compared to non-drinkers. The association may partly be due to residual confounding by smoking or dietary factors, but...
A major challenge for molecular diagnosis of bladder cancer is the subdivision of tumors beyond histological classifications into clinical relevant molecular subgroups. The evolution of molecular high-throughput techniques assessing a large number of molecular features at the same time has made...
A few data sets have been used for assessing the risk of radiation-associated bladder cancer. The most important are the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and patients exposed to ionizing radiation for medical purposes. According to a report from the United Nations Commission on the Effect of...
The current World Health Organization (WHO) 2004 classification of urothelial neoplasms was based on an attempt to reconcile molecular-genetic and pathology findings. This article provides an overview of the more recent molecular-genetic findings in the field and critically appraises their...
A brief overview is given of the disastrous effects of tobacco smoking on health, the environment and the economy. Obstacles for prevention are exemplified by the strong addictive property of nicotine, the ruthlessness and greed of the tobacco industry, and the ambivalence still demonstrated by...
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