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A clean opening system for a vacuum tube is discussed. This system presents the following advantages: before closure, the tube can be baked to temperatures of the order of 350 °C. Once sealed a high vacuum can be maintained inside, and the opening of the tube can be done in a high vacuum...
A simple model is developed to determine quantitative relations among operating parameters applicable to the design of ionization‐type smoke detectors. The model permits the adjustable parameters of operating current, radioisotope source intensity, and cell geometry to be specified for ambient...
An apparatus for the measurement of optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) in zero magnetic field at 4.2 K using commercially available parts is described. A simple electronic analogue device is used to obtain kinetic data from ODMR transients in a fast and reliable way. From these data...
Considerable differences in the current gain have been found in a channel electron multiplier when used as a detector of 100 keV N 1 + ions, depending on the point of impact at the channel entrance. These differences occur at high current gains which are usually considered near to saturation. In...
An automatic temperature controller for a three‐phase, grid‐controlled induction furnace, which can maintain the oven temperature at the silicon melting point with a stability of ±0.4 °C for 2 h of operation, has been described.
A simple mesh wall ionization chamber (representing a ’’wall‐less’’ ionization chamber) is described for air dose measurement. The effects of insulators and air circulation in the vicinity of the chamber were studied. An outer shield mesh placed around the collecting chamber eliminates...
This paper describes an apparatus which can be used to determine bulk thermal expansion coefficients of liquids as a function of temperature and pressure up to 10 kilobar in a temperature range from −20° to 100 °C. The principle of the method consists in measuring the heat of compression by a...
A straightforward dc circuit has been built for the precise regulation and accurate measurement of the total incident beam current in an elastic low‐energy electron diffraction (ELEED) apparatus. It functions simply by comparing the returning ground current to a reference current and optically...
A new method of gain controlling of photomultipliers by means of a grid inserted between the photocathode and first dynode is derived. Photomultiplier characteristics of gain vs applied grid voltage for two types of Tesla Vúvet phototubes are presented.
Microchannel plates have been investigated for use as parallel‐bore collimators using a chopped electron beam. This note compares the collimation ability of plates with theory and gives transmission results. It is found that collimation ability approaches the ideal collimator when pulse...
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