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We analyzed the effect on the visible and near-infrared reflectance of shadows cast by a building, a conifer, and a hardwood on three different surfaces (grass, bare soil, and asphalt). Ground-measured radiances were collected with a radiometer measuring the SPOT-HRV bands and with a...
Most animals use a “green” spectral range to remotely sense the presence and vitality of vegetation. While humans possess the same ability in their eyes, man-made space-borne sensors that sense evolution of global vegetation, have so far used a combination of the red and near infrared...
A feedforward neural network model based on the multilayer perceptron structure and trained using the backpropagation algorithm responds to subpixel class composition in both simulated and real data. Maps of the network response surfaces for simulated data illustrate that the set of network...
We modified a PAM fluorimeter for remote detection from 0.5 m to 1 m distance by using a laser diode for excitation. It permitted us to compare directly and simultaneously measurements of relative fluorescence yield to the measurements of lifetime with the τ-LIDAR performed under natural...
The concept of a vegetation vector has been developed to better visualize and characterize land-cover at regional scales. The vegetation vector is derived from long time-series multitemporal normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data sets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...
Plant response to iron deficiency has been extensively studied, but little is known concerning the effects of iron deficiency-induced modifications in leaf spectral properties. Spectral changes in corn and sunflower plants grown in nutrient solutions containing five iron rates from mg L −1 to 4...
The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) has been widely used for remote sensing of vegetation for many years. This index uses radiances or reflectances from a red channel around 0.66 μm and a near-IR channel around 0.86 μm. The red channel is located in the strong chlorophyll...
Using remotely sensed surface temperature to estimate the sensible heat flux over partial canopy covered surfaces, one faces the problem of how the bare soil and plant foliage temperatures contributing to the radiometric surface temperature are related to the turbulent transport of sensible heat...
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