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Experimental error resulting from instructions which may be internally contradictory or ambiguous can be reduced by stating tasks in terms of costs or payoffs rather than in terms of probabilities. Money values are suggested as being unambiguous, infinitely divisible, and useful as motivating...
Behavior is seen as a function of genetic material, or its by-products, as modified by learning. The basic genetic material is desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), with such molecules as ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein as relevant by-products. It is suggested that experience changes the chemical...
Some general specifications of the nature of concept formation tasks are stated and are related to conventional paired-associates tasks. The explanatory consequences of 1-stage and 2-stage (mediating responses and stimuli) paradigms of conceptual behavior are explored. Notions of abstract set or...
A summary of the Northwestern University researches on the effects of distributed practice in verbal learning and suggested concepts to explain these findings. Distributed practice (DP) is when trial intervals are greater than 15 seconds; massed practice (MP), when intervals are 2-8 seconds. DP...
A theory of serial rote learning is outlined, and quantitative predictions of the shape of the bowed serial position curve are presented. The predictions are compared with predictions from Murdock's theory and with obtained results. The authors' predictions compare well with obtained results....
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