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"The attempt has been made to describe the ways in which motivational processes alter cognitive ones in accordance with the nature of the material on which they act. It was suggested that needs and attitudes may act by pointing or sensitizing, organizing and reorganizing, selecting, supplying...
Ambiguity in the interpretation of much current research on interpersonal perception is held to be the result of certain methodological confusions. Several of these conceptual problems are described and suggestions for dealing with them presented. 23 references.
This is a reply to Professor Postman's critique (see 30: 5713) of the Gibsons' theory. The main point of disagreement concerns the authors' belief that Postman does not avoid the problems inherent in the associationistic position by ridding it of phenomenal experience and relating it to S-R...
An analysis is made of some recent experimental material relating differential conditioning to anxiety within the frameworks of Hull-Spence and Bush-Mosteller models. By means of indices of relative differentiation, anxious and non-anxious subjects are shown to be equivalent from the standpoint...
"We have examined two contrasting approaches to the problem of perceptual learning––traditional associationism and the specificity hypothesis of Gibson and Gibson, which ascribes all perceptual learning to the increasing effectiveness of stimulus variables. The case for the associationistic...
The concept of instinct is given a brief historical discussion with the goal of determining why it has shown so much vitality without an objective test for at least two millennia. The last part of the paper is devoted to an evaluation of the concept as it relates to a science of behavior. Topics...
A procedure is developed for determining the presence of functional equivalence among a series of alternative responses. The procedure involves the reasoning that if a suitable correlation coefficient can be derived, functional similarity may be satisfactorily inferred from the fact that...
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