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An explanation for abandoning "faith" in a monistic reward theory of learning and embracing a two-factor theory. Reward theory does not satisfactorily account for the acquisition of secondary drives, such as fear-learning. A defensible two-factor theory restricts "conditioning" to the processes...
Evidence against effect as the single principle of learning does not force a dualism as the only alternative. There is considerable evidence to suggest that the principle of contiguity may be reinstated as a sufficient condition of both selective learning and conditioning.
Reinforcement hypotheses assume that the habit learned in avoidance training is weakened on each occasion when the signal occurs without the shock. Soloman's experiments with normal dogs indicated this is not always true. If expectancy is interpreted as involving a spatio-temporal essential, the...
A study of experimental extinction in 32 albino rats in a simple T-maze, with black and white food compartments, reveals no differential effects of secondary reinforcement as between the primary drives of hunger and thirst.
A mathematical model to describe simple learning situations, with special attention to the acquisition and extinction of behavior habits in the straight runway and the Skinner box.
Based upon a conception of perception as a form of continuous adjustment to environmental requirements which involves, not merely the cognitive functions, but the whole organism, 18 hypotheses are presented which suggest the interaction of exteroceptive, interoceptive, and proprioceptive...
A critical evaluation of multiple-process theories of learning reveals a paucity of supporting experimental evidence. The facts of latent learning and of sensory preconditioning do not embarrass seriously reinforcement theory. Until rival theories have developed to the present level of...
Two independent but related problems are discussed: some implications of comparative psychology for learning theory, and the nature of the learning process in any given animal form. Both cognitive and stimulus-response positions in learning theory are anti-comparative because they lead to...
An inventory of the explanatory capacities of other learning theories leads to the conclusion that S-R reinforcement theory has been the most fruitful both in its instigation of experimental research and in its integration of various learning data within its theoretical structure.
Attention is called to the biochemical concept of autocatalysis as providing a basis for a definition of "life."
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