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The author first distinguishes between the "response theory" and "stimulus-response behaviorism," the former emphasizing and the latter ignoring what goes on between stimulus and overt response. The latter is a "method of study," the former an "interpretation of mind." He then defines the...
The authors argue heatedly that recent attacks on Gestalt psychology place it in a false light, and miss the main discrepancies between the "old" and "new" psychologies. First, the type of whole meant by a Gestalt is not a synthetic whole, but a unit which exists antecedently to synthesis. It is...
The dilemma between behaviorism and introspectionism is expressed as a circle with immediate experience on the left and physiological events on the right half. The view that physical entities are derived from immediate experience is expressed by an arrow pointing to the right, and is labelled...
The mystery attached to the "law of effect" is partly due to the confusion between "effect" and "affect." The law of affect describes "something within the subjective experience of the actor" and hence cannot explain. The law of effect, however, "may describe some objectively verifiable change"...
The author discusses various interpretations of the conditioned reflex phenomenon. He compares the relative value of the explanation of learning in terms of the conditioned reflex as compared with an alternate explanation in terms of the "law of effect" or the "principle of the retroflex." The...
The interpretation of results from experiments with anthropoid apes to show the inferiority of these animals when compared to humans is spurious because (1) the training of the apes has seldom if ever been undertaken at an early enough age to prohibit their already having acquired many...
In reply to Klein's criticism of psychology that it is more burdened with system-making than other natural sciences, the author points out the important constructive rôle which system-making has played in the development of physics, and is still playing. The excess of systems in psychology is...
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