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Free radicals are by‐products of metabolism and exist in a homeostasis between generation and scavenging in vivo. Excessive free radicals cause various diseases, including nervous system diseases. Neuroglobin (Ngb), a nervous system‐specific oxygen‐binding protein, has been suggested to be...
Type I phosphomannose isomerases (PMIs) are zinc‐dependent metalloenzymes involved in the reversible isomerization of D‐mannose 6‐phosphate (M6P) and D‐fructose 6‐phosphate (F6P). 5‐Phospho‐D‐arabinonohydroxamic acid (5PAH), an inhibitor endowed with nanomolar affinity for yeast...
The (β/α)8‐barrel is one of the most abundant folds found in enzymes. To identify the independent folding units and the segment(s) that correspond to a minimum core structure within a (β/α)8‐barrel protein, fragmentation experiments were performed with Escherichia coli...
The increasing numbers of published genomes has enabled extensive survey of protein sequences in nature. During the course of our studies on cellulolytic bacteria that produce multienzyme cellulosome complexes designed for efficient degradation of cellulosic substrates, we have investigated the...
Membrane proteins (MPs) are difficult to identify in genomes and to crystallize, making it hard to determine their tertiary structures. MPs could be categorized into α‐helical (AMP) and outer membrane proteins which mostly include beta barrel folds (OMBBs). The AMPs are relatively easy to...
The kinetic analysis of coumarin oxidation by CYP2A6 suggested that substrate binding and release occurred in the multiple steps and such events proceeded rapidly. However, the crystal structure of the CYP2A6‐coumarin complex reveals that no obvious channel is open enough to allow coumarin to...
Colicins are water‐soluble toxins that, upon interaction with membranes, undergo a conformational change, insert, and form pores in them. Pore formation activity is localized in a bundle of 10 α‐helices named the pore‐forming domain (PFD). There is evidence that colicins attach to the...
Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are enzymes responsible for membrane disruption through Ca2+‐dependent hydrolysis of phospholipids. Lys49‐PLA2s are well‐characterized homologue PLA2s that do not show catalytic activity but can exert a pronounced local myotoxic effect. These homologue PLA2s were...
Amyloids are insoluble, fibrous proteins formed through the aggregation of misfolded proteins. They accumulate in the tissue of individuals with degenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fibril growth from an initial model...
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