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In order to achieve acceptable levels of flame retardancy of polymers, phosphorus-based flame retardant (FR) additives at about 20–30% w/w are required which is too high for conventional synthetic fibres. To know whether more finely sized particles of conventional FRs with or without nanoclay...
The obvious aspect of nanodispersion and its role when investigating fire retardancy is not often clearly commented upon in the literature. Polymer clay nanocomposites can exhibit different morphologies and these might have consequences for their fire behaviour. Using solid state NMR to quantify...
The thermal degradation behaviours of flame-retarded unsaturated polyester resin formulations containing ammonium polyphosphate (APP), Cloisite 25A nanoclay and zinc based smoke suppressants have been studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) combined with infrared analysis of the evolved...
Annealing of pristine polypropylene blended with the organomontmorillonite (OMMT) at temperatures of 180–340 °C under a stream of nitrogen and of nitrogen–air mixtures is investigated. The oxidative annealing brings about the dispersion of the OMMT in the polypropylene and the formation of a...
In order to compare their inherent flame retardancy and thermal stability, two phosphorus-containing thermotropic liquid crystalline copolyesters (P-TLCP) were synthesized by melting transesterification. Additionally based on the facts that the P-TLCP can work as a functional additive to enhance...
Effective additives are required to impart a measure of fire retardancy to polymeric materials used in a variety of applications. Traditionally, these have been gas-phase active additives, most commonly organohalogen compounds or solid-phase active agents, often organophosphorus compounds....
A series of organo-cyclic phosphorus compounds were synthesized in an attempt to find an efficient flame retardant (FR) for acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS). The success of synthesis was confirmed by 1 H and 31 P NMR. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results reveal that cyclic phosphorus...
Phosphorus- and silicon-containing epoxy resins were prepared from (2,5-dihydroxyphenyl)diphenyl phosphine oxide (Gly-HPO), diglycidyloxy methylphenyl silane (DGMPS) and 1,4-bis(glycidyloxydimethyl silyl)-benzene (BGDMSB) as epoxy monomers and diaminodiphenylmethane (DDM),...
This work reports the preparation of polyurethane–polyisocyanurate (PUR–PIR) foams containing different amounts of flame retardants (FRs) and a layered silicate nanoclay. An environmentally friendly blowing agent, a mixture of 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane and 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane...
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