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No single animal model for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) reproduces all aspects of the human disease. Young inbred mice support SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) replication in the respiratory tract and are available in sufficient numbers for statistical evaluation. They are relatively...
A critical determinant in chronic gammaherpesvirus infections is the ability of these viruses to establish latency in a lymphocyte reservoir. The nuclear factor (NF)-κB family of transcription factors represent key players in B-cell biology and are targeted by gammaherpesviruses to promote host...
In the prevailing model of HIV-1 trans -infection, dendritic cells (DCs) capture and internalize intact virions and transfer these virions to interacting T cells at the virological synapse. Here, we show that HIV-1 virions transmitted in trans from in vitro derived DCs to T cells principally...
The specific and covalent addition of ubiquitin to proteins, known as ubiquitination, is a eukaryotic-specific modification central to many cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, transcriptional regulation, and hormone signaling. Polyubiquitination is a signal for the 26S proteasome...
Prophylaxis with high doses of neutralizing antibody typically offers protection against challenge with viruses producing acute infections. In this study, we have investigated the ability of the neutralizing human monoclonal antibody, KZ52, to protect against Ebola virus in rhesus macaques. This...
Ebola viruses are highly lethal human pathogens that have received considerable attention in recent years due to an increasing re-emergence in Central Africa and a potential for use as a biological weapon. There is no vaccine or treatment licensed for human use. In the past, however, important...
Genetic exchange by recombination, or reassortment of genomic segments, has been shown to be an important process in RNA virus evolution, resulting often in important phenotypic changes affecting host range and virulence. However, data from numerous systems indicate that reassortant or...
Enterococcus faecium, an ubiquous colonizer of humans and animals, has evolved in the last 15 years from an avirulent commensal to the third most frequently isolated nosocomial pathogen among intensive care unit patients in the United States. E. faecium combines multidrug resistance with the...
A process of pseudomitosis occurs during human cytomegalovirus infection that appears similar to cellular mitosis but involves the formation of multiple spindle poles, abnormal condensation, and mislocalization of chromosomal DNA. The relationship of this process to viral replication and cell...
Interleukin 4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) is essential for effective clearance of gastrointestinal nematode infections. Smooth muscle cells are considered to play a role in the type 2 immune response–driven expulsion of gastrointestinal nematodes. Previous studies have shown in vitro that signal...
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