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For more than a decade it has been assumed that there is a strong relationship between Ca 2+ and gravitropism. There is evidence to suggest that the movement of Ca 2+ in the wall might regulate extension growth and that free intracellular Ca 2+ might mediate signalling in statocytes. However, it...
Unicellular tip-growing cells are excellent experimental systems in which to study gravitropism because cell extension, gravity sensing and the gravity response are all confined to the apical dome. Thus various approaches can be used to determine the distinct steps of the short gravitropic...
Attempts to devise models to account for the gravitropic behaviour of plant organs have been limited conceptually by the predominance of studies on the gravitropic behaviour of organs of young seedlings. The dramatic growth responses induced by gravitropic stimulation of young shoots or roots,...
Plasma-membrane-bound nitrate reductase (PM-NR) is located in roots and leaves of tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Samsun) and reduces nitrate with NADH as electron donor. When plasma membranes were prepared under specific protecting conditions, a PM-NR of roots was detected that accepts...
Since the nineteenth century, the merits of two alternate models for explaining the mechanism of plant gravity perception have been discussed. The gravitational pressure model states that plant cells perceive gravity by sensing their relative buoyancy to that of the surrounding medium, whereas...
Tissue stresses, which occur in turgid herbaceous stems, both elongating and non-elongating, and tree growth stresses (TGSs) which occur in woody stems, are similar in that (i) they form self-equilibrating patterns of stresses (tensile and compressive) in stems, and (ii) the asymmetric,...
Narbonin is a 2S protein from the globulin fraction of narbon bean ( Vicia narbonensis L.) cotyledons. Its amino acid composition and the pattern of its regulated accumulation in developing seeds led to the suggestion that narbonin could be a storage protein. Therefore, it was expected to be...
A number of features of the gravitropic response of roots are not readily accounted for by the classical Cholodny-Went theory. These include the observations that (i) in the later stages of the response the growth gradient is reversed with no evident reversal of the auxin gradient; (ii) a major...
A full-length cDNA encoding plastidic phosphorylase (Pho1, EC 188.8.131.52) from spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) has been isolated. Analysis of the deduced protein sequence revealed considerable homologies with the corresponding proteins from other plants, animals and prokaryotes. Escherichia coli...
The Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (CEBAS) consists of four subcomponents which form a closed (artificial) aquatic ecosystem initially designed to study the long-term influence of space conditions on several successive generations of aquatic organisms. Teleost fishes and water...
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