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Nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) are a superfamily of eukaryotic ligand-dependent transcription factors that translate endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, developmental, and pathophysiological signals into gene regulation. Members of the NR superfamily (on the basis of sequence homology) that lack...
Homeostasis of the rapidly renewing intestinal epithelium depends on a balance between cell proliferation and loss. Indian hedgehog (Ihh) acts as a negative feedback signal in this dynamic equilibrium. We discuss recent evidence that Ihh may be one of the key epithelial signals that indicates...
Human airways are a paragon of intrinsic engineering. They experience 7,000–10,000 liters of airflow/day, have a 70-m 2 surface area, and undergo complete renewal every 100–400 days. Despite this, airways are susceptible to aging, injury, and diseases that are major causes of mortality....
Direct and indirect pathway striatal neurons are known to exert opposing control over motor output. In this review, we discuss a hypothetical extension of this framework, in which direct pathway striatal neurons also mediate reinforcement and reward, and indirect pathway neurons mediate...
Differentiated adult cardiomyocytes (CMs) lack significant regenerative potential, which is one reason why degenerative heart diseases are the leading cause of death in the western world. For future cardiac repair, stem cell-based therapeutic strategies may become alternatives to donor heart...
Protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms have emerged as important regulators of cardiac contraction, hypertrophy, and signaling pathways that influence ischemic/reperfusion injury. This review focuses on newer concepts regarding PKC isoform-specific activation mechanisms and actions that have...
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