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Abstract T-type Ca 2+ channels were originally called low-voltage-activated (LVA) channels because they can be activated by small depolarizations of the plasma membrane. In many neurons Ca 2+ influx through LVA channels triggers low-threshold spikes, which in turn triggers a burst of action...
Abstract Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) are key regulators of neuronal morphogenesis in a variety of different vertebrate and invertebrate systems, yet the mechanisms by which these proteins regulate central nervous system development are poorly understood. In the past few years,...
Abstract A new framework for understanding the control of feeding behavior, with special emphasis on the evolution of hunger, the initiation of feeding, and its dependence on patterns of blood glucose, is the subject of this review. A perspective on the current status and future directions of...
Abstract In recent years a number of growth factors, cytokines, protein hormones, and other proteins have been found in the nucleus after having been added externally to cells. This review evaluates the evidence that translocation takes place and discusses possible mechanisms. As a demonstration...
Abstract Experimental work during the past 15 years has demonstrated that endothelial cells in the heart play an obligatory role in regulating and maintaining cardiac function, in particular, at the endocardium and in the myocardial capillaries where endothelial cells directly interact with...
Abstract While transport processes for amino acids and glucose have long been known to be expressed in the luminal and abluminal membranes of the endothelium comprising the blood-brain and blood-retinal barriers, it is only within the last decades that endothelial and smooth muscle cells derived...
Abstract Glomerular podocytes are highly specialized cells with a complex cytoarchitecture. Their most prominent features are interdigitated foot processes with filtration slits in between. These are bridged by the slit diaphragm, which plays a major role in establishing the selective...
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