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Abstract This review addresses classical questions concerning microvascular permeabiltiy in the light of recent experimental work on intact microvascular beds, single perfused microvessels, and endothelial cell cultures. Analyses, based on ultrastructural data from serial sections of the clefts...
Abstract This review explores the fundamental neuranatomical and functional bases for integration of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems in vertebrates and traces their evolution through the vertebrate groups, from primarily water-breathing fish and larval amphibians to facultative...
Abstract The primary function of the presynaptic nerve terminal is to release transmitter quanta and thus activate the postsynaptic target cell. In almost every step leading to the release of transmitter quanta, there is a substantial involvement of ion channels. In this review, the multitude of...
Abstract The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves several important functions. Cholesterol, an essential component of cellular membranes, is synthesized on the ER surface. Inside the organelle, proteins destined for secretion or transport to the cell surface are folded and become glycosylated....
Abstract Intracellular Ca 2+ is normally maintained at submicromolar levels but increases during many forms of cellular stimulation. This increased Ca 2+ binds to receptor proteins such as calmodulin (CaM) and alters the cell’s metabolism and physiology. Calcium-CaM binds to target proteins and...
Abstract Hypoxic states of the cardiovascular system are undoubtedly associated with the most frequent diseases of modern times. They originate as a result of disproportion between the amount of oxygen supplied to the cardiac cell and the amount actually required by the cell. The degree of...
Abstract The aim of this review is to provide basic information on the electrophysiological changes during acute ischemia and reperfusion from the level of ion channels up to the level of multicellular preparations. After an introduction, section ii provides a general description of the ion...
Abstract The Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger, an ion transport protein, is expressed in the plasma membrane (PM) of virtually all animal cells. It extrudes Ca 2+ in parallel with the PM ATP-driven Ca 2+ pump. As a reversible transporter, it also mediates Ca 2+ entry in parallel with various ion channels....
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