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In the last 50 years cardiopulmonary bypass has evolved dramatically, so that even the most complex heart lesions can be repaired successfully. However, we are aware that whilst survival may be excellent, organ damage, even though minor, particularly to the central nervous system is common. The...
John Gibbon conceived cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and performed the first intracardiac repair using extracorporeal perfusion in 1953. This achievement stimulated rapid development of the knowledge base and equipment necessary for accurate diagnoses and successful intracardiac operations. In the...
During off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) which allows complete revascularization through a median sternotomy, revascularization of the lateral and posterior walls requires the verticalization of the heart, which may cause haemodynamic disturbance. This concern has stimulated the...
Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support systems (PCPS) are compact, battery-powered, portable heart-lung machines that can be implemented rapidly in any area of the hospital using thin-walled cannulae inserted via the femoral vessels. PCPS provides temporary circulatory support by actively...
Conventional coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) carries a mortality rate of 1% to 2% in elective patients. However, despite advances in perfusion, anaesthetic, and surgical techniques cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is still associated with subsystem dysfunction. Off-pump coronary artery bypass...
The British Heart Foundation was established 40 years ago with the aim of playing a major role in the fight against cardiovascular disease. Despite spectacular advances in the surgical treatment of congenital and ischaemic heart disease, there is a continued need for research into the causes,...
The intentional induction of elevated body temperature to treat malignant lesions has its origins in the 18th century. The mechanism of heat-induced cell death is not clear; however, heat induces a variety of cellular changes. For heat to exert a therapeutic effect, pathogens (bacteria, viruses,...
An estimated 16 million Americans are afflicted with some degree of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), accounting for 100,000 deaths per year. The only current treatment for chronic irreversible pulmonary failure is lung transplantation. Since the widespread success of single and...
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