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Previous studies have shown that immunological challenges as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration increases plasma oxytocin (OT) concentration. Nitric oxide (NO), a free radical gas directly related to the immune system has been implicated in the central modulation of neuroendocrine adaptive...
In recent years, studies have advocated neuropeptide systems as modulators for the behavioral states found in mood disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders. Neuropeptides have been tested in traditional animal models and screening procedures that have been validated by known...
Endothelin (ET)-1 and angiotensin II (Ang II) are likely candidates for a key role in diabetic vascular complications. We demonstrated previously that an enhanced ET-1-induced contraction is present in mesenteric arteries from Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats at the chronic stage of type 2 diabetes....
Insulin tolerance test (ITT) is the gold standard for assessing the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) function. GH-releasing peptide (GHRP)-2, which has a strong GH-stimulating activity, is useful for diagnosing GH deficiency as well as ITT. Additionally, GHRP-2 is also known to activate...
The T cell activation Ag CD26/dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPP IV) combines co-stimulatory and enzymatic properties. Catalytically, it functions as an exopeptidase, modulating biological activity of key chemokines and peptides. Here we investigated the effect of organ-specific inhibition of DPP IV...
Early-life stress is a key predisposing factor to the development of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Thus, changes in stress-related molecular substrates which influence colonic function may be important in understanding the pathophysiology of such disorders. Activation of peripheral...
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a single uninterrupted barrier that in the brain capillaries is located at the endothelial cells and in the circumventricular organs, such as the choroid plexuses (CP) and median eminence (ME), is displaced to specialized ependymal cells. How do hypothalamic...
Oxidative stress plays an important role in overnutrition-induced metabolic syndrome. Somatostatin (SST) inhibits a wide variety of physiologic functions in the gastrointestinal tract, which may in turn control the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from ingestion of macronutrients....
Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the most abundant molecules found in the respiratory tract. Due to its anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatatory properties, it has been proposed as a novel treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The actions of VIP are mediated via...
A lot of studies have pointed that acetylcholine (Ach), a classic neurotransmitter can regulate pain process in the caudate nucleus (CdN). Our previous report has proven that arginine vasopressin (AVP) effects on pain modulation in the CdN. The communication was designed to investigate the...
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