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Cationic antibacterial peptides are produced in all living organisms and possess either selective activity toward a certain type of cell or microorganism, or a broad spectrum of activity toward several types of cells including prokaryotic and mammalian cells. In order to exert their activity,...
Ceratotoxin A (CtxA), a 36-residue α-helical cationic peptide isolated from the medfly Ceratitis capitata , exhibits strong antibacterial activity. To determine its mode of action against bacteria, we investigated the behavior of ceratotoxin A by incorporating it into planar lipid bilayers....
Esculentin-1 is a 46-amino acid residue peptide isolated from skin secretions of Rana esculenta , displaying the most potent antimicrobial activity among the bioactive molecules found in the secretion, with negligible effects on eukaryotic cell membranes. From skin secretions, the 19–46...
Cationic antimicrobial peptides are a class of small, positively charged peptides known for their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. These peptides have also been shown to possess anti-viral and anti-cancer activity and, most recently, the ability to modulate the innate immune response. To...
The quorum-sensing interfering RNAIII-inhibiting peptide (RIP) YSPXTNF and its synthetic analogues YSPWTNF and YSPITNF have been shown to prevent and suppress diseases caused by Staphylococcus aureus at different body sites in different animal models. This study was designed to investigate...
Retrocyclins (ancestral human θ-defensins) are cyclic antimicrobial octadecapeptides that interfere with viral uptake and protect human cells from infection by T- and M-tropic strains of HIV-1 in vitro. As are other θ-defensins, retrocyclins are lectins that bind gp120, CD4, and...
The therapeutic efficacy of protegrin peptide IB-367 was investigated in three rat models of septic shock: (i) rats injected intraperitoneally with 1 mg Escherichia coli 0111:B4 lipopolysaccharide, (ii) rats given an intraperitoneal injection of 2×10 10 CFU of E. coli ATCC 25922, and (iii) rats...
Paneth cells secrete α-defensins into the lumen from the base of small intestinal crypts, and cryptdin-4 (Crp4) is the most potent mouse α-defensin in vitro. Purified recombinant Crp4 and Crp4 variants with (des-Gly)-, (Gly1Val)-, (Gly1Asp)-, and (Gly1Arg)-substitutions were all bactericidal...
Plant defensins are small, basic, cysteine-rich peptides that are generally active against a broad spectrum of fungal and yeast species at micromolar concentrations. Some of these defensins interact with fungal-specific lipid components in the plasmamembrane. Structural differences of these...
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