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B-1 cells reside predominantly within the coelomic cavities, tonsils, Peyer's patches, spleen (a minor fraction – ∼5%) and are absent in the lymph nodes. They are the primary sources of natural IgM in the body. B-1 cells express polyreactive B cell receptors (BCRs) that cross react with...
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) transcription factors play essential roles in regulating an array of cellular processes, including differentiation, energy metabolism, and inflammation. In this report we demonstrate that both C/EBPα and C/EBPβ activate the promoter driving transcription...
The recent demonstration that newly recruited monocytes do not die at the site of inflammation, but migrate to draining lymph nodes, raises the question on the mechanism involved in this process. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) regulates the...
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily conserved kinase which plays a role in integrating environmental cues. mTOR signals via two complexes: TORC1, which contains the Regulatory Associated Protein of TOR (raptor), and TORC2, which contains the Rapamycin-insensitive...
The innate immune system is triggered when pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by infectious microorganisms interact with toll-like receptors (TLR) present on immune cells. Individual TLRs signal through distinct molecular pathways. For example, TLR9 interacts with...
Intravenous drug use has become the principal route of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission due to the sharing of infected needles. In this study, we analyzed the distribution of HLA – KIR genotypes among 160 Puerto Rican intravenous drug users (IDUs) with HCV infection and 92 HCV-negative...
Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD) and proinsulin are major diabetes-associated autoantigens that drive autoreactive T cells. Altered peptide ligands (APL) have been proposed as reagents for the modification of autoimmune reactions. Here, we have prepared GAD-derived protease-resistant APL...
Normal functions of mitochondria are required for physiological dynamics of cells, while their dysfunction contributes to development of various disorders including those of immune system. Here we demonstrate that exposure of mast cells to ragweed pollen extract increases production of H 2 O 2...
The type I interferon (I-IFN) gene has recently been cloned and sequenced in the common carp species Cyprinus carpio L. Carp I-IFN cDNA is composed of 675 base pairs and is translated into a protein of 186 amino acid residues. The carp I-IFN encodes a predicted signal peptide of 23 amino acid...
Chicken host defense peptide cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2) is known to exert antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities and consists of two α-helices connected by a hinge region. Here we report the biological properties of the separate α-helical segments and the importance of the proline residue...
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