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Branching morphogenesis (BM) of the chorionic villous tree is a crucial component of early placental formation. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), their receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and negative regulators like Sprouty ( Spry ) proteins are pivotal factors in the development of diverse branching...
We used hyperosmolar stress to test blastocysts for their biologic and enzymatic responses to culture stress. Embryos mount dose- and time-dependent responses to hyperosmolar stress. Biological responses included slowed cavitation and cell accumulation and increased apoptosis at increasing doses....