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Recent human genetic approaches showed that mutations in three genes encoding OPHN1, PAK3, and αPIX cause nonspecific X-linked mental retardation. These three proteins act to modulate Rho GTPase signaling pathways and may participate in neuronal morphogenesis by regulating the actin...
In the adult CNS, cells that express the NG2 chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan are considered oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). However, adult NG2-glia are highly complex cells, suggesting they may be a mature glial cell type distinct from conventional OPCs. To test this possibility, we...
Neural stem and progenitor cells can be expanded under growth factor stimulation in vitro. It is likely that different mitogens and different culturing techniques selectively expand specific subclasses of cells, but this selection has not been well studied. We have expanded human cells isolated...
The molecular signals inducing the formation of inhibitory synapses early in development have remained enigmatic. Here we focus on the role of PKC and GABA A R receptor activation in the formation of GABAergic synapses in a natural cellular environment. Rapid synaptogenesis was observed in...
Astrocytes respond to injury of the CNS with a dramatic change in morphology, contributing to the formation of a glial scar. We recently identified a novel actin-associated protein named palladin, which possesses the features of a potent cytoskeletal scaffold. Palladin expression was assayed in...
Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by mesencephalic dopaminergic neuron cell death and striatal dopamine (DA) depletion. The factors involved in the pathogenesis of the disease are still unknown. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) is increased in the striatum of patients...
Chloride channels are important for astrocytic volume regulation and K + buffering. We demonstrate functional expression of a hyperpolarization-activated Cl − current in a subpopulation of astrocytes in acute slices or after fresh isolation from adult brain of GFAP/EGFP transgenic animals in...
The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the most active site for the production of new neurons in the adult mouse brain. Neural stem cells in the adult SVZ give rise to neuroblasts that travel via the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to the olfactory bulb, where they differentiate into interneurons. The...
Exposure of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma or rat cortical neurons to diethylenetriamine–NO (DETA–NO) rapidly depolarized mitochondria. In SH-SY5Y DETA–NO activated caspase 3 and produced cell death. Mitochondrial depolarization in SH-SY5Y was visualized both with JC-1 accumulation and as...
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