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Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) is a key regulator of reproduction and sexual behaviour. During the last decade, embryological studies have clarified the question of the early development of GnRH-synthesising neurones before the onset of neurosecretion. These studies have revealed the...
Androgens are important steroid hormones for expression of the male phenotype. They have characteristic roles during male sexual differentiation, during development and maintenance of secondary male characteristics, and during the initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis. The two most...
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a member of the transforming growth factor-β family, is an important factor of male sex differentiation. It is produced by Sertoli cells from the time of fetal sex differentiation to puberty. AMH is also produced by granulosa cells from the time of birth to the end...
Pulsatile GnRH acts at the GnRH receptor on gonadotropes to stimulate gonadotropin gene expression, hormone synthesis and secretion. The pituitary gonadotropins, LH and FSH, stimulate steroid production and gametogenesis in males and in females. Gonadotropin production thus requires the normal...
Gonadotropin and GnRH receptors belong to the family of G protein coupled receptors. Gain of function mutations have been described, yielding constitutively active receptors. In the case of the LH receptor these dominant mutations determine familial male limited precocious puberty. Somatic...
In humans, testis development depends on a regulated genetic hierarchy initiated by the Y-linked SRY gene. Failure of testicular determination results in the condition termed 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis (GD). Several components of the testis determining pathway have recently been identified though...
Targeted gene disruption has produced knockout mice lacking the orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1). These SF-1 knockout mice lacked adrenal glands and gonads, resulting in adrenocortical insufficiency and sex reversal of their internal and external genitalia. They also had...
Progesterone plays a central coordinate role in diverse reproductive events associated with establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. In humans and other vertebrates, the biological activities of progesterone are mediated by two proteins, A (PR-A) and B (PR-B) that arise from the same gene and...
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