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Although metformin has been used worldwide to treat type 2 diabetes for several decades, its mechanism of action on glucose homeostasis remains controversial. To further assess the effect of metformin on glucose metabolism, 10 42-hour-fasted conscious dogs were studied in the absence ((Con) n =...
We investigated the effects of a glutamine-supplemented amino acid mixture on vastus lateralis muscle protein synthesis rate in healthy young men and women. Three men and 3 women (27.8 ± 2.0 yr, 22.2 ± 1.0 body mass index (BMI), 56.1 ± 4.5 kg lean body mass (LBM)) received a 14-hour primed,...
Ingested fructose is rapidly utilized by the liver and is either stored as glycogen, converted to glucose, or oxidized to CO 2 for energy. The glycemic response to fructose is known to be modest. However, the relative importance of these pathways in humans is unclear. In the present study, a...
The concentrations of methionine and S -adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) in plasma and free choline and phospholipid-bound choline in both plasma and red blood cells from individuals with isolated hypermethioninemia have been measured. The only genetic abnormalities identified in these individuals...
Agonists for the retinoid X receptor (RXR), the rexinoids, and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR γ), the thiazolidinediones, are effective in the treatment of insulin resistance in rodent models by enhancing insulin action and improving glycemic control. In the present...
We investigated the effect of long-term administration of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (EPA-E), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, on the dysfunction of the endothelium and smooth muscle cells in male WBN/Kob rats, a model of spontaneous diabetes mellitus. After oral 8-month...
A standard intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed in 10 nondiabetic patients with essential hypertension (H group) and 9 normotensive control subjects (N group). A 2-compartment minimal model (2CMM) of glucose kinetics was applied to estimate indexes of glucose effectiveness, ,...
Apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) expression is inversely related to the incidence of atherosclerosis. ApoAI expression is also influenced by the nutritional state and diabetes. We used both cell culture and animal models to examine the effect of fasting and ketoacidosis on apoAI gene expression. Two...
Whether metabolic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is best achieved with the traditional high-carbohydrate (CHO), low-fat diet or a low-CHO, high-fat diet is still controversial. In a randomized crossover study, we compared the effects of a low-fat (30% of daily energy) diet and a...
The effect of steroid hormones, such as estrogen and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on psychologic well-being of women has been suggested. Dietary estrogen may also affect psychologic status. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of serum concentrations of estradiol (E2) and DHEA sulfate...
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