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Most manufactured goods entail the involvement of three parties, a manufacturer, an intermediary and a customer. Usually, the manufacturer warranties his/her product against defects to the intermediary, who in turn extends this warranty to the customer. Here, we consider the manufacturer's...
This article describes some special problems facing expert witnesses presenting statistical evidence when they testify in court. Since the legal system, especially in civil cases, serves as a dispute resolution process that needs to reach a decision in a timely manner, its objectives and...
Experts presenting statistical DNA evidence are often challenged about their ability to use databases of only a few hundred people to claim probabilities in the billions. This challenge is countered with the inclusion of a sampling error calculation in the case report. Sampling error is present...
In a recent publication, Köller et al. ( Probability Conclusions in Expert Opinions on Handwriting. Substantiation and Standardization of Probability Statements in Expert Opinions . München: Luchterhand, 2004) elaborate recommendations as to how forensic scientists should evaluate their...
Statisticians have expertise that can be very valuable in a wide variety of litigation. But the practices and culture of litigation are much different from science and, indeed, much different from most normal life. When statisticians enter this culture, they may be surprised and confused; at...
This Bayesian speaker addresses the question of how to handle the variety of ways of doing statistics in the context of the responsibilities of a statistical expert witness. An expert witness is typically hired and paid by one of the sides in a legal dispute, but the fundamental responsibilities...
Group-to-individual inferences are inevitable. They are sometimes epistemically legitimate. Sometimes such inferences are morally odious. It is important to distinguish between morally odious and epistemically odious inferences. A prohibition of group-to-individual inferences exclusively on...
The use of Bayesian approach in forensic science requires the evaluation of the likelihood ratio related to the crime scene evidence event E and the suspect characteristic event C . This evaluation fails when the two events are disjoint, i.e. the evidence E is not compatible with the...
The application of statistics to litigation and regulatory matters has become increasingly important over the last four decades. The presentation of statistical arguments to lay decision makers in an adversarial climate has introduced special, if not unique, practical and ethical issues. These...
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