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The consumption of fuel in cars can be reduced by using hybrid concepts. Even for fuel cell vehicles, a high power battery may cut costs and allow the recovery of energy during retarding. Alkaline batteries, such as nickel–metal hydride batteries, have displayed long cycle life combined with...
Carbon aerogels are highly porous materials prepared via pyrolysis of resorcinol–formaldehyde aerogels. The density of the aerogels can be varied in a wide range, whereby the major part of the pores is accessible to ionic conductors. Therefore, the application of high surface area aerogels as...
Recent developments into technology of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) now allow serious consideration to be given to a direct alcohol fuel cell (DAFC) based on a PEMFC, in which alcohol is used directly as the fuel. This is particularly advantageous for mobile applications, since...
Pure electric and hybrid vehicles have differing demands on the battery system of a vehicle. This results in correspondingly different demands on the battery management of a hybrid vehicle. Examples show the differing usage patterns. The consequences for the battery cells and the battery...
Six sub-micro-crystalline alloy powders (Sn–Sb, Sn–Ag, Sb–Ag, and Sn–Sb–Ag alloys), where all constituents are able to alloy reversibly with Li and which are therefore characterized by large theoretical Li storage capacities, have been synthesized by chemical precipitation with NaBH 4 ,...
The performance and the efficiency of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are affected by the methanol permeation from the anode to the cathode. A widely used method to measure the methanol permeation in a DMFC is the analysis of the carbon dioxide content of the cathode exhaust. During the...
Metallic bipolar plates for Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells with and without coatings were tested in single cell tests. Current–voltage curves, lifetime curves and the contamination with metal ions were measured. Additionally the surface of the plates was analyzed by several...
By analogy with the behavior of vacuum (air) capacitors, early perceptions of the properties of electrochemical supercapacitors were that very high power-levels would be achievable because only capacitance (ca. 25 μF cm −2 ) originating from a double-layer of nanometre thickness was involved....
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