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Abstract The recently discovered GABA B receptor-positive allosteric modulators enhanced the potency and efficacy of GABA B receptor agonists in in vitro experiments. These GABA B modulators also attenuated reward and anxiety in behavioral experiments without causing the untoward side effects...
Abstract Heme is a strong inducer and substrate of the stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which produces carbon monoxide, iron, and bilirubin. We have reported recently that nitric oxide (NO) augments the incorporation of free hemin in endothelial cells, resulting in amplified HO-1...
Abstract Quantification of different levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 (5-HT 4 ) receptor agonism expression across animal species as well as across organs within the same animal species offers substantial potential for the separation of desired gastrointestinal versus undesired cardiac...
Abstract The “extracellular cAMP-adenosine pathway” refers to the conversion of cAMP to AMP by ecto-phosphodiesterase, followed by metabolism of AMP to adenosine by ecto-5′-nucleotidase, with all the steps occurring in the extracellular compartment. This study investigated whether the...
Abstract Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are implicated in joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by modulating the production and functions of inflammatory cytokines. Although p38 MAPK (p38) participates in signaling cascades leading to osteolysis in arthritis, the...
Abstract Drug delivery to the brain is becoming more and more important but is severely restricted by the blood-brain barrier. Nanoparticles coated with polysorbates have previously been shown to enable the transport of several drugs across the blood-brain barrier, which under normal...
Abstract In humans, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Here, we assess whether hypercholesterolemia induces endothelial dysfunction in rats with pre-existing hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive controls (WKY) were...
Abstract Although inhibition of Na + /H + exchanger isoform 1 (NHE-1) reduces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, the mechanisms underlying this effect are not known. Recent evidence suggests that this may be associated with improved mitochondrial function. To understand the mechanistic bases for...
Abstract The present study investigated the serotonin-induced increase in phosphoinositide hydrolysis and mobilization of intracellular Ca 2+ (Ca 2+ i ) in human uterine smooth muscle cells (HUSMCs) to identify the serotonergic receptor positively coupled to phospholipase C in these cells. In...
Abstract IκB kinase (IKK) β is essential for inflammatory cytokine-induced activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). NF-κB plays a pivotal role in the function of major cell types that contribute to the pathophysiological process of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we report the mechanism and...
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