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Organophosphates are the largest class of known insecticides, several of which are potent nerve agents. Consequently, organophosphate-degrading enzymes are of great scientific interest as bioscavengers and biodecontaminants. Recently, a hyperthermophilic phosphotriesterase (known as Sso Pox),...
Conservation of energy based on the reduction of sulfate is of fundamental importance for the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. A key enzyme of this ancient anaerobic process is the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dSir), which catalyzes the six-electron reduction of sulfite to hydrogen sulfide under...
Mutations in the protein dysferlin, a member of the ferlin family, lead to limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B and Myoshi myopathy. The ferlins are large proteins characterised by multiple C2 domains and a single C-terminal membrane-spanning helix. However, there is sequence conservation in...
I-TevI is a modular intron-encoded endonuclease, consisting of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal DNA-binding domain, joined by a 75 amino acid linker. This linker can be divided into three regions, starting at the N terminus: the deletion-intolerant (DI) region; the...
What changes occur when a natural protein that had been under low mutation rates is subjected to a neutral drift at high mutational loads, thus generating genetically diverse (polymorphic) gene ensembles that all maintain the protein's original function and structure? To address this question we...
Human pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase 1) is expressed in many tissues; has several important enzymatic and biological activities, including efficient cleavage of single-stranded RNA, double-stranded RNA and double-stranded RNA–DNA hybrids, digestion of dietary RNA, regulation of vascular...
His121 and His124 are embedded in a network of polar and ionizable groups on the surface of staphylococcal nuclease. To examine how membership in a network affects the electrostatic properties of ionizable groups, the tautomeric state and the p K a values of these histidines were measured with...
The hepatitis B virus capsid (core antigen) is able to bind to and activate naïve B cells and these become efficient primary antigen-presenting cells for the priming of T cells. We have investigated this interaction by using cryo-electron microscopy, three-dimensional image reconstruction, and...
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