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Organophosphates are the largest class of known insecticides, several of which are potent nerve agents. Consequently, organophosphate-degrading enzymes are of great scientific interest as bioscavengers and biodecontaminants. Recently, a hyperthermophilic phosphotriesterase (known as Sso Pox),...
Conservation of energy based on the reduction of sulfate is of fundamental importance for the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. A key enzyme of this ancient anaerobic process is the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dSir), which catalyzes the six-electron reduction of sulfite to hydrogen sulfide under...
Mutations in the protein dysferlin, a member of the ferlin family, lead to limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B and Myoshi myopathy. The ferlins are large proteins characterised by multiple C2 domains and a single C-terminal membrane-spanning helix. However, there is sequence conservation in...
I-TevI is a modular intron-encoded endonuclease, consisting of an N-terminal catalytic domain and a C-terminal DNA-binding domain, joined by a 75 amino acid linker. This linker can be divided into three regions, starting at the N terminus: the deletion-intolerant (DI) region; the...
Human pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase 1) is expressed in many tissues; has several important enzymatic and biological activities, including efficient cleavage of single-stranded RNA, double-stranded RNA and double-stranded RNA–DNA hybrids, digestion of dietary RNA, regulation of vascular...
His121 and His124 are embedded in a network of polar and ionizable groups on the surface of staphylococcal nuclease. To examine how membership in a network affects the electrostatic properties of ionizable groups, the tautomeric state and the p K a values of these histidines were measured with...
What changes occur when a natural protein that had been under low mutation rates is subjected to a neutral drift at high mutational loads, thus generating genetically diverse (polymorphic) gene ensembles that all maintain the protein's original function and structure? To address this question we...
The hepatitis B virus capsid (core antigen) is able to bind to and activate naïve B cells and these become efficient primary antigen-presenting cells for the priming of T cells. We have investigated this interaction by using cryo-electron microscopy, three-dimensional image reconstruction, and...
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