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Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) cannot produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to a genetic defect in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase system. Dysregulation of the l -tryptophan metabolism in mice with defects in NADPH oxidase, resulting in...
IκB kinase alpha ( Ikk-α ) gene mutations and IKK-α downregulation have been detected in various human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), which are malignancies derived from squamous epithelial cells. These squamous epithelial cells distribute to many organs in the body; however, the epidermis...
Histamine is involved in the execution of an immune reaction. Receptors for histamine, of which four different subtypes are known so far, are found on dendritic cells and on T cells. Via these receptors, histamine either indirectly or directly affects the activation of T cells. Data in the...
Currently, products containing interferon beta (IFNβ) are injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously. To avoid the necessity of injection, we developed a novel monomeric Fc fusion protein of IFNβ (IFNβFc) that is absorbed via an immunoglobulin transport system present in the upper and...
Tumor-associated macrophages infiltrate tumors and facilitate tumor growth. Here, we analyzed M1 and M2 marker expression in the course of co-culture-driven macrophage differentiation and investigated the influence of interferons (IFNs) on this differentiation. To generate monocyte-derived...
Cytokine (receptor) genes have traditionally attracted great interest as plausible genetic risk factors for autoimmune disease. Since 2007, the implementation of genome-wide association studies has facilitated the robust identification of allelic variants in more than 35 cytokine loci as...
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