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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest disabling neurological disease of young and middle-aged adults affecting 1 million persons world wide. The illness begins with a relapsing-remitting MS course in 85%–90% of patients; the other 10%–15% have a primary progressive onset MS. Our current...
More than 16 years ago human interferon-β-1b (IFN-β-1β) was shown to be effective in the treatment of the relapsing-remitting form of multiple sclerosis (MS). Over time, IFN-β has been demonstrated to be both a safe and effective treatment. However, the mechanism of action of IFN-β in MS...
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system for which a number of disease-modifying therapies are available, including interferon beta (Avonex ® , Rebif ® , and Betaseron/Betaferon ® ), glatiramer acetate (Copaxone ® ), and an anti-VLA4 monoclonal antibody...
Interferon beta was the first specific disease-modifying therapy licensed for multiple sclerosis (MS) and in its many forms remains the most commonly prescribed agent worldwide. It, however, has a modest effect in reducing relapse rates, magnetic resonance imaging activity, and disability, and...
Interferon-beta (IFN-β) is one of the main first-line disease-modifying drugs indicated for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The drug exhibits only limited effectiveness, and does not produce clinical benefits in around 20%–50% of patients. The availability of biomarkers would be...
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease characterized by autoimmune inflammation in the central nervous system. Despite over a decade of use of interferon-β (IFN-β) in the treatment of MS, its mechanisms of action are still not fully elucidated. New data now demonstrate that the 2...
This review discusses type I interferon (IFN) immunogenicity with focus on methods of detection of anti-IFN antibodies in patients treated with human recombinant IFN-β. Pitfalls involved in the clinical use of various types of assays for binding antibodies and neutralizing antibodies against...
Like many other therapeutic proteins, recombinant human interferon beta (rhIFN-β) elicits undesirable immune responses. rhIFN-β-treated multiple sclerosis patients may form binding antibodies and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), with the latter being responsible for inhibition of the therapeutic...
The cytokine interferon (IFN)-β is successfully used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. However, some patients fail to respond to therapy, probably due to different biological patterns that are of importance in influencing clinical response. A common mechanism involved in the modulation of...
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