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Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is a key cytokine in the immune defense against mycobacteria. IFN-γ activates macrophages to resist the growth of mycobacteria and induces expression of MHC class II molecules required for antigen presentation. Macrophages infected with mycobacteria or stimulated by the...
Type I interferons (IFNs) include the IFN-α family of subtypes, IFN-β, IFN-ω, IFN-τ, IFN-κ, IFN-λ, and IFN-ζ. IFN genes lack introns and encode secretory signal peptide sequences that are proteolytically cleaved prior to secretion from the cell. In contrast to the approximately 50% amino...
Lymphocytes from aged autoimmune MRL/ lpr mice overexpress Fas ligand (FasL), and are cytotoxic against Fas + target cells. This cytotoxic potential is only partly due to FasL, as wild-type MRL +/+ lymphocytes are not able to kill Fas + targets after induction of FasL. In addition, serum levels...
In multiple sclerosis (MS), a crucial step in the induction phase of the inflammatory process in the central nervous system (CNS) is the disruption of the endothelial blood-brain barrier (BBB). Its permeability depends on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecules, such as vinculin and...
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) can elicit diverse cellular responses, including differentiation, fusion, and proliferation, and these are all critical to establishment of an effective immune response. In this report, we provide evidence that IL-4 induces the proliferation of T lymphocytes with the...
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