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Appropriate activation and differentiation of lymphocytes are critical for effective immune responses. These processes are normally guided by exposure of lymphocytes to different stimuli, which need to be appropriately integrated in order for lymphocytes to proceed along their activation and...
Members of the interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRFs) family of transcription factors play diverse roles in immunity and cellular response to viral infections. Their biologic effects result from their ability to regulate either constitutive, inducible, or tissue-specific gene expression. All...
Interferon (IFN) consensus sequence binding protein (ICSBP) is a member of a family of transcription factors termed IFN regulatory factors (IRF) and is also called IRF-8. Its expression is restricted mainly to cells of the immune system, and it plays a key role in the maturation of macrophages....
Interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRF) are a family of transcription factors with multiple functions. IRF-7 was initially cloned within the biologic context of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency and discovered to have an intimate relation with the EBV primary oncogenic protein, latent membrane...
Interferon (IFN) consensus sequence binding protein (ICSBP)/IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-8 is an IFN γ -inducible transcription factor of the IRF family and regulates transcription through multiple target DNA elements, such as IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE), Ets/IRF composite element, and...
Interferon (IFN) regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) is a unique member of the IRF family. Its transcriptional activity is regulated solely by posttranslational modifications. We review current knowledge of the mechanism of IRF-3 activation: signalling triggered by infections including viruses and...
Tuberculosis is the most prevalent infectious disease and causes more deaths than any other, yet only 5%-10% of people infected by the causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis , will develop the disease. Thus, natural resistance among humans is the norm. Fundamental immune responses to M....
Maximal activation of murine infection-A4 ( IFNA4 ) gene transcription following viral infection requires the presence of four cooperating DNA sequences (denoted A to D), which make up the virus responsive element VRE-A4. The B, C, and D modules, when tandemized, form binding sites for the...
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