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Trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate (TDM), or cord factor, is a mycobacterial cell wall component that induces granuloma formation and proinflammatory cytokine production in vivo and in vitro . The purpose of this work was to better understand the mechanisms by which TDM promotes lung granuloma formation....
To improve the long-term efficacy of interferon (IFN) for treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, we proposed induction therapy with twice-a-day IFN-β injection. This study was intended to clarify the antiviral mechanism. Thirty patients were randomly assigned to two groups:...
Thirteen interferon (IFN)-α functional genes have been reported. A number of these genes have allelic members (variants). In the case of IFN-α1, two variants, IFN-α1a and IFN-α1b, are known. The variants differ from each other by one base change in the coding region, leading to a single...
Interferons (IFNs) are important components of the innate immune response, limiting herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. In recombinant HSV-infected cells, IFN inhibited expression of β-galactosidase from the immediate-early gene, ICP4, promoter. The extent of inhibition was dependent on IFN...
Interleukin-13 (IL-13) regulates immune responses mediated by type 2 T helper lymphocytes (Th2) in the human and mouse. To study the function of this cytokine in the dog, we have isolated a cDNA that encodes the full-length canine IL-13 (CaIL-13) precursor polypeptide of 131 amino acids. CaIL-13...
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been localized to the glandular epithelium of the prostate and stimulates the in vitro growth of prostate epithelial cells. 35 SMethionine labeling of MIF protein was used to determine if prostate cells synthesize and secrete this cytokine. The...
An attempt has been made to provide a rational organization for the many interferon-τ (IFN-τ) sequences entered in GenBank based on phylogenetic analysis and common amino acid substitutions, which might form the basis for a universal nomenclature scheme. Over the 13 years since these genes were...
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) functions as a pleiotropic protein, participating in inflammatory and immune responses. MIF was originally discovered as a lymphokine involved in delayed hypersensitivity and various macrophage functions, including phagocytosis, spreading, and...
Retinoic acid (RA) can potentiate the antitumor effect of interferons (IFN) in a variety of tumor types, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The mechanisms by which RA and IFN increase the antitumor effects in RCC are unknown. We used growth assays and mobility shift assays to examine the...
Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is an abortion-inducing factor, yet its effects in such a reaction are subject to various levels of regulation. The trophoblast cell line TROPHO-1 can be induced by IFN-γ to express mRNA and surface class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins after 8 and 48 h...
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