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In 2 experiments, rats received flavor-aversion conditioning in which the unconditioned stimulus (US) was an orally consumed solution of lithium chloride (LiCl). The resulting aversion was not attenuated by giving preexposure to injections of LiCl, although such preexposure did attenuate...
In the time-left experiment ( ), animals are said to compare an expectation of a fixed delay to food, for one choice, with a decreasing delay expectation for the other, mentally representing both upcoming time to food and the difference between current time and upcoming time (the cognitive...
In the peak procedure, starts and stops in responding bracket the target time at which food is expected. The variability in start and stop times is proportional to the target time (scalar variability), as is the systematic error in the mean center (scalar error). The authors investigated the...
In 3 experiments, rats were required to escape from a Morris pool by swimming to a submerged platform that was located at the apex of a notional, equilateral triangle with 2 different landmarks occupying the corners at the base. Training for 1 group was always conducted in view of the landmarks...
noted that a number of influential theories of associative learning do not take the associative history of cues (i.e., the prior training that they have received) into account when calculating the associative change undergone by those cues. The authors tested this assumption in a human causal...
Self-control is demonstrated when a less desirable immediate outcome is chosen to ensure a substantially better future. In a novel animal analogue of this situation, primary reinforcement was delivered in both the initial and terminal links of a concurrent chain schedule. Rats made initial link...
A new Pavlovian procedure used fluid-elicited throat-movement responses of the pigeon ( = 66) to study the effects on conditioning of the temporal relation of the conditioned stimulus (CS) to the unconditioned stimulus-unconditioned response (US-UR). Because the throat-movement response has a...
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