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Three experiments were conducted to identify species-specific sign stimuli sufficient to elicit copulatory behavior in male Japanese quail and to determine how learning is involved in the control of behavior by these sign stimuli. In Experiment 1, sexually experienced subjects were tested for...
Generalization of a visual matching-to-sample rule was shown for the first time in a bottlenosed dolphin ( ), normally considered an auditory specialist. The visual items used were all real-world objects. Some objects had acoustic names in an artificial acoustic language taught to the dolphin...
Melioration theory entails that matching in concurrent schedules occurs because the subjects equalize the local reinforcement rates (reinforcers received for each alternative divided by the time allocated to each alternative). The role of local reinforcement rates was tested by using multiple...
In two experiments 1 examined the effects of stimulus modality and the intermixing of nonreinforced feature (X−) presentations on rats' acquisition and transfer of performance in appetitive feature positive discriminations. The effects of both manipulations depended on whether the feature (X)...
In the delayed matching of key location paradigm, pigeons' memory for spatial location is assessed by briefly illuminating one key of a square-shaped three-by-three matrix of pecking keys as the sample and then, after a retention interval, by illuminating all nine keys. A subject's choice of the...
The principle of least effort predicts that behavior will tend to maximum efficiency. To test this prediction, changes in the energy expended ( O ) and work performed per reinforcement were monitored continuously as rats learned to press a beam with a criterion force for liquid food rewards. All...
Relative pitch perception in animals has been difficult to demonstrate. This failing is due in part to stimulus sets that make an absolute pitch solution viable. In Experiment 1, starlings failed to acquire a discrimination that could be solved only on the basis of relative pitch. In Experiment...
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