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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) enhances the production of nitric oxide (NO) in interferon (IFN)-γstimulated vascular endothelial cells. We studied the mechanism by which LPS enhances IFN-γ-induced NO production by using the murine vascular endothelial cell line, END-D. LPS enhanced IFN-γinduced NO...
The nucleotide-binding oligomerisation protein 2 (NOD2) is a sensor for bacterial muramyl dipeptide, which ensures ileal expression of antimicrobial peptides (so-called α-defensins) and promotes cytokine and chemokine production by immunocytes and enterocytes. Defective NOD2 signaling pathway...
Pretreatment with a low dose of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) caused the reduction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and inflammatory factors which are capable of protecting the liver from a lethal LPS challenge. However, the effects of LPS pretreatment on the expression of...
The monocyte activation test (MAT) has been introduced as an alternative for the detection of pyrogens in pharmaceuticals with the rabbit pyrogen test or the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test. The basis of the MAT is that pyrogens, via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed on monocytes,...
Partial structures of peptidoglycan were chemically synthesized for elucidation of their precise biological activities. By using an efficient synthetic strategy, mono-, di-, tetra- and octasaccharide fragments of peptidoglycan were synthesized in good yields. The biological activity of synthetic...
Endotoxin-mediated inflammation and septic shock remains a grave challenge to human healthcare management. It is, therefore, a worthwhile effort to develop anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) strategies to prevent downstream effects. Here, we demonstrate that purified recombinant Factor C (rFC) cloned...
Several lines of evidence link inflammation with neurodegenerative diseases, which are aggravated by the age-related decline in estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is used widely to stimulate glial cells to produce pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO, PGE 2 , and...
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