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A model-based approach to rater reliability for essays read by multiple readers is presented. The approach is motivated by the generalizability theory. Variation of rater severity (between-rater variation) and rater inconsistency (within-rater variation) is considered in the presence of...
The ANOVA F and several nonparametric competitors for two-way designs were compared for empirical ? and power. Simulation of 2 × 2, 2 × 4, and 4 × 4 designs was done with cell sizes of 5 and 10 when sampling from normal, exponential, and mixed normal distributions. Conservatism of both ? and...
The scaling constant d = 1.702 used in item response theory minimizes the maximum difference between the normal and logistic distribution functions. The theoretical and numerical derivation of d given by Haley (1952) is briefly recapitulated to provide access to curious researchers, instructors,...
The popular One-Sample Runs Test is used to identify a nonrandom pattern in a sequence of dichotomous elements. Although the test is generally effective in the identification of patterns, it is demonstrated to be incapable of signaling departures from randomness with run lengths of two....
Type I error rates were estimated for three tests that compare means by using data from two independent samples: the independent samples t test, Welch's approximate degrees of freedom test, and James's second-order test. Type I error rates were estimated for skewed distributions, equal and...
In completely randomized experimental designs where population variances are equal under the null hypothesis, it is not uncommon to have multiplicative treatment effects that produce unequal variances under the alternative hypothesis. Permutation procedures are presented to test for (a) median...
This article has two objectives. The first is to investigate in greater detail the finding of Rogosa and Willett that the quasi-Markov simplex model fits a linear growth curve covariance structure. It is found that under various circumstances the quasi-Markov simplex model is rejected....
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