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Visual inspection of the spectral composition of the Doppler signal as a function of time (sonogram) has been very helpful in detecting the presence of stenoses with substantial lumen narrowing causing abnormal flow patterns. Attempts to grade a stenosis based on the spectral width at peak...
Various methods were developed for the quantification of the degree of stenosis: B‐mode imaging, CW Doppler with spectral analysis, PW‐duplex, and colorflow imaging. The degree of stenosis can be evaluated using transverse views of the carotid in conventional B‐mode imaging. The diameters of the...
Experimental studies in the 1960s and 1970s demonstrated the high sensitivity of Doppler ultrasound in detecting gaseous bubbles. More recent studies have shown that microscopic air bubbles, as well as glass microspheres as small as 5 μ to 20 μ, cause characteristic high‐intensity signals....
Four‐dimensional (4D) analysis of atherosclerotic plaque and wall motion, the application of 4D ultrasound to the study of atherogenesis, and the incorporation of ultrasound data into flow models for simulation of cerebrovascular hemodynamics are new frontiers in diagnostic ultrasound that use...
Transcranial color‐coded duplex sonography (TCCD), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and computed tomography angiography (CTA) are novel noninvasive or minimally invasive techniques for the study of the intracranial circulation. TCCD is relatively inexpensive and permits bedside examination....
Maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure is a prerequisite for the prevention of cerebral ischemia. Physiological fluctuations in systemic perfusion pressure are compensated by cerebrovascular autoregulation. Cerebral hypoperfusion could result from (1) systemic hemodynamic failure (eg, distal...
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