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The author describes a one-dimensional cloud model designed to investigate the relationships between stratiform downdrafts, congestus outflow, stability, and relative humidity in the tropical lower troposphere. In the tropics, the climatological lapse rate varies with height below the melting...
In this study, satellite passive microwave sensor observations from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) are utilized to make estimates of latent ++ eddy sensible heating rates ( Q 1 −− Q R ) where Q 1 is the apparent heat source and Q R is the radiative...
The response of climate to freshwater input in the North Atlantic (NA) has raised a lot of concern about the issue of climate stability since the discovery of abrupt coolings during the last glacial period. Such coolings have usually been related to a weakening of the Atlantic meridional...
El Niño brings widespread drought (i.e., precipitation deficit) to the tropics. Stronger or more frequent El Niño events in the future and/or their intersection with local changes in the mean climate toward a future with reduced precipitation would exacerbate drought risk in highly vulnerable...
The strength of the water vapor feedback has been estimated by analyzing the changes in tropospheric specific humidity during El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycles. This analysis is done in climate models driven by observed sea surface temperatures Atmospheric Model Intercomparison...
The ability of eight climate models to simulate the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is examined using diagnostics developed by the U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) MJO Working Group. Although the MJO signal has been extracted throughout the annual cycle, this study focuses...
The impact of explosive volcanic eruptions on the atmospheric circulation at high northern latitudes is assessed in two versions of the Met Office Hadley Centre’s atmospheric climate model. The standard version of the model extends to an altitude of around 40 km, while the extended version has...
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