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Pediatric low-grade gliomas encompass a heterogeneous set of tumors of different histologies. Cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas occur most frequently followed by supratentorial diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas. Recent research has implicated activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK pathway in tumorigenesis...
Approximately 2 of every 3 of all pediatric patients with brain tumors will be long-term survivors. However, there is a steep cost for pediatric brain tumor survivors, and the group as a whole faces significantly more late effects than many other survivors of pediatric cancers. Most of these...
Neurologic signs and symptoms are often the initial presenting features of a primary brain tumor and may also emerge during the course of therapy or as late effects of the tumor and its treatment. Variables that influence the development of such neurologic complications include the type, size,...
Central nervous system germ cell tumors are neoplasms that affect children and young adults. They are subclassified into germinoma and nongerminomatous germ cell tumors. The latter include teratoma (mature teratoma, immature teratoma, teratoma with malignant transformation), choriocarcinoma,...
In this review, the basic magnetic resonance concepts used in the imaging approach of a pediatric brain tumor are described with respect to different factors including understanding the significance of the patient’s age. Also discussed are other factors directly related to the magnetic...
Surgery is an integral component and typically the first line of therapy for children with central nervous system tumors. The outcome with regard to surgical morbidity and disease control can be greatly influenced by the initial care that these children receive. Conventional aims of neurosurgery...
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Patients with medulloblastoma are stratified into ‘‘standard’’ and ‘‘high’’ risk categories based on age at diagnosis, degree of surgical resection, and disease spread. In children older than 3 years of age, the...
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