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The replacement of blowing agent from CFC-11 to HCFCs is proceeding in rigid polyurethane foam applications in order to meet the revised Montreal Protocol. The foams using HCFCs, however, have about 5 to 10% higher thermal conductivity than that using CFC, owing to the high thermal conductivity...
This paper reports the way different combinations of organic acids and tertiary amines work as catalysts in various polyurethane systems. The term "delayed action" is defined with examples of model reactions and commercially available polyurethane formulations. The effects on the reaction...
The industry is continuously being challenged by regulatory agencies to find alternatives to CFCs (chlorofluoro-carbons) for use in all applications. Two solutions investigated were to replace CFCs with HCFCs (hydrochloro-fluorocar-bons or PFAs (perfluoroalkanes). However, the contribution of...
This paper describes the preparation, processing, properties and applications of open cell rigid isocyanurate foams. A mechanism for the formation of open cell rigid foams is discussed. The open cell foams were blown by using a blend of methylene chloride and n-pentane at specific ratios between...
As we move toward final phaseout of chlorofluorocarbon blowing agents, new compounds and technologies are emerging to produce the polyurethane foams essential to so many products. In considering zero-ozone-depleting compounds that are currently available, the potential hydrofluorocarbon (HFC)...
In response to the environmental dangers posed by CFC-11 use, rigid polyisocyanurate foam insulation manufacturers are currently making the transition to HCFC-141b. This change has forced manufacturers to requalify their commercial roofing products on the Factory Mutual Calorimeter. Factory...
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