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The inspiratory intercostal muscles enhance the force generated by the diaphragm during lung expansion. However, whether the diaphragm also alters the force developed by the inspiratory intercostals is unknown. Two experiments were performed in dogs to answer the question. In the first...
Relative force depression associated with muscle fatigue is reported to be greater when assessed at short vs. long muscle lengths. This appears to be due to a rightward shift in the force-length relationship. This rightward shift may be caused by stretch of in-series structures, making sarcomere...
We determined the effects of augmented expiratory intrathoracic pressure (P ITP ) production on cardiac output (Q TOT ) and blood flow distribution in healthy dogs and dogs with chronic heart failure (CHF). From a control expiratory P ITP excursion of 7 ± 2 cmH 2 O, the application of 5, 10, or...
Cellular responses to mechanical stimuli are regulated by interactions with the extracellular matrix, which, in turn, are strongly influenced by the degree of cell stiffness (Young's modulus). It was hypothesized that a more elastic cell could better withstand the rigors of remodeling and...
The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether the effect of changes in central blood volume on carotid-vasomotor baroreflex sensitivity at rest was the same during exercise. Eight men (means ± SE: age 26 ± 1 yr; height 180 ± 3 cm; weight 86 ± 6 kg) participated in the present...
The spleen acts as an erythrocyte reservoir in highly aerobic species such as the dog and horse. Sympathetic-mediated splenic contraction during exercise reversibly enhances convective O 2 transport by increasing hematocrit, blood volume, and O 2 -carrying capacity. Based on theoretical...
Laryngopharyngeal or gastroesophageal reflux is associated with laryngeal airway hyperreactivity (LAH), but neither the cause-effect relationship nor the underlying mechanism has been elucidated. Here we established a rat model with enhanced laryngeal reflex reactivity induced by laryngeal...
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