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Thermal conversion in the vicinity of the surface of a Cr‐doped semi‐insulating GaAs wafer to n ‐type conductivity was effectively suppressed by annealing the wafer under arsenic vapor pressure. For the ion implantation of Si into qualified wafers, the arsine‐controlled capless‐anneal...
Using the rectifying characteristics of grain boundaries, modified deep‐level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and optical deep‐level transient spectroscopy (ODLTS) sensitive techniques have been developed for identification and for quantitative estimation of electron and hole traps in the...
Thermal behavior of both microdefects and residual impurities in pulled silicon wafers has been studied, using x‐ray diffraction and infrared absorption techniques. Several tens of wafers from different suppliers have been investigated after heat treatments at temperatures between 450 and 1250...
A system of approximate equations for the determination of thermal stresses in piezoelectric plates with large thin films of a different material plated on the surfaces is derived. The plate equations are obtained by making a suitable expansion of the pertinent variables in the thickness...
Donor formation during heat treatment of silicon in the 550–800 °C temperature range has been investigated by resistivity measurements. The maximum donor concentration obtained here is about 1×10 16 /cm 3 in p ‐type Czochralski‐grown silicon. The donor is confirmed to be correlated with...
Existing magnetization measurements on magnetic colloids known as ferrofluids have been analyzed using the Langevin theory for spherical particles with no anisotropy energy. Deviations from simple Langevin theory are interpreted as being a reflection of a distribution of particle sizes. We...
The extinction efficiency is calculated for a volume containing randomly oriented long circular cylinders. The results are compared with the extinction efficiency of spheres with the same refractive index and are shown to be almost identical. Special attention is given to a corrected definition...
Plasmas produced with focused 10.6‐μm radiation from a high‐pressure pulsed CO 2 laser have been used to initiate a number of neutral‐gas recombination lasers. The results have implications for the future development of high‐efficiency lasers in the near infrared.
Thermally stimulated discharge (TSD) current studies on negatively‐corona‐charged low‐density polyethylene reveal a deep surface trap distribution centered at 95 °C and a shallow surface and bulk distribution centered at 55 °C. TSD also shows that corona‐generated neutral excited gas...
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