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An attempt has been made here to cover the general subject of temperature and methods of expressing temperature. The fundamental concepts involved are developed, the basis and significance of a thermodynamic scale are discussed, and the relation of various practical scales, in particular the...
The fundamental laws and theories of thermoelectric phenomena and their historical development as well as the application of these phenomena to the measurement of temperature are discussed in this paper in considerable detail. Thermoelectric thermometry, with particular regard to types of...
The Townsend equation for the passage of a spark is analyzed and its inadequacy for explaining sparks in air at near atmospheric pressures is demonstrated. The mechanisms active in air at higher pressures, viz. , the electron avalanche and its tip field, photo‐ionization in the gas and positive...
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