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Innate immunity provides the first line of defense by recognizing pathogen-associated microbial patterns and inducing key co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines, which activate the mechanisms of the adaptive immune response. Innate immune cells perform phagocytosis, which can clear pathogens and...
Galantamine is an approved treatment for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease, with demonstrated benefits for cognition and functional ability in human studies. The mechanism of action that is most generally recognized as underlying the clinical benefits of galantamine is inhibition of brain...
We have shown previously that dietary blueberry (BB) extract supplementation (S) reversed several parameters of neuronal and behavioral (e.g., cognition) aging in rodents. Additionally, findings indicate that COS-7 cells transfected with muscarinic receptor subtypes (e.g., M1) showed decrements...
Etiological studies suggest that aluminum (Al) intake might increase an individual's risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Biochemical analysis data on the effects of Al, however, are inconsistent. Hence, the pathological involvement of Al in AD remains unclear. If Al is involved in AD,...
Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are both characterized by cognitive abnormalities, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and cholinergic deficits. We reviewed data from large, placebo-controlled clinical trials conducted with rivastigmine in patients with PDD and AD to...
Memantine is a moderate affinity, uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist currently approved for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). A 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, study (Study 99679) conducted in Europe evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of 20mg/day...
Inflammatory mediators are highly expressed in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. We have shown that in AD the cerebral microcirculation is a rich source of cytokines and chemokines including interleukins (IL) 1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1....
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