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Solubilization of integral membrane proteins is a process in which the proteins and lipids that are held together in native membranes are suitably dissociated in a buffered detergent solution. The controlled dissociation of the membrane results in formation of small protein and lipid clusters...
The ubiquitin‐proteasome pathway (UPP) is known to degrade short‐lived and misfolded proteins. Its role in cell cycle regulation and signal transduction is well established. However, the importance of the UPP in nuclear hormone receptor‐regulated gene transcription is relatively new....
A series of isoforms of α‐KT × 14 (short chain potassium channel scorpion toxins) were isolated from the venom of Buthus martensii Karsch by RACE and screening cDNA library methods. These isoforms adding BmKK1 ‐ 3 and BmSKTx1 ‐ 2 together shared high homology (more than 97%) with each...
Insulin is a key autoantigen in the autoimmune process leading to the development of type 1 diabetes. Recent studies in both humans and mice have shown that variation in the expression of the insulin gene, in the thymus rather than the pancreas, contributes to disease susceptibility by affecting...
Transketolase (TK) is a homodimer, the simplest representative of thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)‐dependent enzymes. It was first ThDP‐dependent enzymes the crystal structure of which has been solved and revealed the general fold for this class of enzymes and the interactions of the...
The intestinal absorption of the essential trace element iron and its mobilization from storage sites in the body are controlled by systemic signals that reflect tissue iron requirements. Recent advances have indicated that the liver‐derived peptide hepcidin plays a central role in this process...
The disialoganglioside GD3 can mediate biological functions as diverse as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Since intracellular level of GD3 is crucial for the cell, understanding the mechanisms by which GD3 metabolism is tightly regulated seems of particular importance. GD3 can be...
Inteins are protein splicing elements that employ standard enzyme strategies to excise themselves from precursor proteins and ligate the surrounding sequences (exteins). The protein splicing pathway consists of four nucleophilic displacements directed by the intein plus the first C‐extein...
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